Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Last Lecture for 124! Freedom Movements.

I'm trying something new. I hope it works!

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Proxy Wars and Decolonization

The Kitchen Debate is famous - took place in 1959 between Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev and (then) Vice President of the United States, Richard Nixon. It looks jovial enough, but the Truman Doctrine and NSC-68 committed the United States to the idea of "Containment." That is, of containing Communism. Containing the spread of Communism would lead to the emergence of "Proxy Wars" - often tied to the theme of Decolonization.

As former colonized nations gained independence, a race began for the ideology of these peoples - between Communism and Capitalism. Although this is not precisely true. It was more of a fight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.

Why would the Soviet system appeal to some of these decolonized nations? What made their message so powerful? What was the reality of Soviet expansion?

Here is a map showing the vast area "decolonized" between 1945 and 1975

A Communist Vietnamese representation of Dien Bien Phu

Scenes from the fall of Saigon in 1975

A pretty heartrending video about refugees toward the end of Angola's civil war in 2002 - when neither the USA or the Soviet union cared so much any more about the outcome:

Chapter 20 Terms

Douglas MacArthur
Marshall Plan
Proxy wars
Partitioning of India
Africa for Africans
Leopold Senghor
Ben Gurion
Mau Mau Rebellion
Sharpesville Massacre
Great Leap Forward
Cultural Revolution
Fulgencio Batista

Monday, April 11, 2011

The End of a Hot War, the Beginning of a Cold One

The Germans had been working on some pretty impressive weapons systems. None with more ramifications for the Cold War than the V2 Rocket:

The partitioning of Germany

The Berlin Airlift marked an important turning point in the Cold War. It also marked the moment when Berlin became a focal point for international Cold War intrigue for the next forty years. Think about this "news" reel in the context of propaganda. How important was mass media in the Cold War? We'll be returning to that idea.

The postwar fate of Vietnam has everything to do with the global gambit of the Cold War:

And in 1949, China goes Red.

As the Soviets took hold of the Eastern Bloc, not everybody was keen on the idea. In 1956, the Hungarians revolted against being part of the "buffer zone" for the Soviet Union. Again, think of the propaganda on display here:

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

World War II: Fall of the Old and Rise of the New World Order

Soviet World War II veterans.

The First World War left many old questions unanswered. In contrast, World War II definitely provided answers, many of which were quite startling. Today we will consider the fates of nations in the context of the Second World War.

"Old Europe"
Latin America
China (and Southeast Asia)
The Soviet Union
The United States

We're also going to go over how the war unfolds, because it is important for understanding why these nations bear their fates.

The War in the Pacific

The War in Europe

Sunday, April 3, 2011

The Rise of Mass Media

Today we are going to consider how the emergence and rise of mass media in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century changed the way governments and institutions communicated with the people, how ideas spread, and how technology enabled a small group of people to break conventions and communicate with others in ways never before possible.

First, there was the rise of print culture in the late nineteenth century. A lot of this had to do with the emergence of color lithography and the invention of photolithography (which is now extensively used in the computer you are using to manufacture printed circuit boards). Here is a great design blog that I found that supplies an overview with images of the emergence of print advertising.

Advertising may have been the first major outlet to embrace color lithography, but what is advertising anyway? (Answers... you fans of Mad Men?) Some people are even cynical to refer to advertising as propaganda. Is that fair?

The First World War was the first place to see extensive use of color lithography in conjunction with government propaganda. Let's look at some of these posters from the war. What sort of messages are they trying to convey? How might they reflect the newly emergent field of psychology?

Radio was in its infancy during the First World War, but emerged as a powerful force in the consumer market very shortly thereafter. In fact, the United States Census asked Americans whether or not they owned a radio in the home in 1930, it was that profound of a phenomenon.

A car with an awesome sound system - 1923 style. 

Radio was not often live in its early years. In fact, it was produced (and carefully controlled) so as to deliver a specific message. Often actors and not the actual historical figures, filled the speaking roles on the radio - like in this recording from Time Magazine's "March of Time."

Of course, if you couldn't read or write, you could still enjoy the radio. Think about the implications of that. The first global sporting event was the famous fights in 1936 and 1938 between Joe Louis and Max Schmeling held in Yankee Stadium.

With the radio came the rise of a media form with which we are very familiar today - the news reel, or the forerunner of the television news broadcast. Newsreels used to play in advance of another emergent cultural phenomenon, the cinema.  That is, while you were waiting for the movie to start. Some were not very exciting, like this film of Mussolini speaking in 1932:

But as the art grew more sophisticated, we begin to see clear editorial choices designed to evoke an emotional response in the viewer.

Here is an early reel from the Lindbergh Baby case (Lindbergh himself a victim of mass media)

Or the "Year in Review" From 1935

The power of radio, print, and newsreel (as well as cinema) came from the rise of what we call SYNDICATION.

The newsreel took cues from cinema itself. The first feature-length film, D.W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation glorified the Lost Cause ideology of the Civil War and lionized the Ku Klux Klan.  A cinematic masterpiece, it premiered in 1915.

Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler, FDR, Churchill, all understood the importance of cinematic propaganda - either in feature films or in newsreels.

Drums Along the Mohawk is one of the films from the legendary year of 1939. It strikes a theme of hope in a time of travail - a message resonant in Great Depression Era America.

The most famous cinematic effort at propaganda during the 1930s, however, has to be Lene Reifenstahl's Triumph of the Will.

The emergence of World War II will bring imagery of conflict to a much greater audience than ever before possible - but it (like today's news) will be carefully stage managed.

This incredible Japanese propaganda war footage from 1942 was even in color:

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

The Dangerous Post WWI World

Today we are going to look at the rise of militarism and violent and extreme nationalism in places like Japan, Italy, and the Soviet Union. We are also going to consider the difference between Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism.

The League of Nations began after World War I as a body designed to preclude another disastrous war like the one just concluded.  Along with a bunch of platitudes about respecting the rights of minorities and national boundaries, it placed a lot of hypothetical restrictions on military spending - especially navies. Part of this was self-preservation - navies were expensive. Especially when countries like the USA and Japan could afford to spend more than European nations. But not everybody bought into these restrictions, and it was very unequally followed until the system broke down entirely in the 1930s. 

Japan had been on the move ever since the Meiji Restoration. Building up a powerful army and navy, the most modern in the region, it sought to put this force to good use. The First Sino-Japanese war in 1895 resulted in significantly increased Japanese presence in the Korean Peninsula. This same war gave control of Taiwan to Japan. In 1904-05, the Japanese Empire fought Russia and drove the Czarist forces from Korea completely, leading to Japan's annexation of the peninsula in 1910. Japan used WWI to sieze German holdings in the South Pacific. This was followed by the invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and the second Sino-Japanese war in 1937, which featured the Rape of Nanking. There is a lot of information about this event on the web. Who controls it? We will discuss this.

 Japanese expansionism 1900-1941

So what drove the Japanese to expand in such a fashion? And what was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?

Why does this image put me in mind of REM's "Shining Happy People?"
The reality wasn't quite so shiny or happy.

Mussolini was the first true practical progenitor of the theory of Fascism. This is his description of the system, which is worth reading. Hitler may have gone farther, but you could argue that Mussolini was the real innovator.  Of course the Fascists could produce excellent consumer goods, an act of which you could not accuse the Soviets.

 1938 Alfa Romeo Tipo 8C 2900B

But we must consider how Mussolini came to power. Was it just because he supposedly made the "trains run on time?" Perhaps we should consider what was going on in post World War I France with regard to the emergence of Socialist, Communist, and Democratic (and Fascist) wings of the government. What role did violence play in turning the tide?

Even the Russians freely admit that Stalin was a sociopath, and the "Revelations of the Russian Archives" presented by the Library of Congress does much to document that.

Stalin and Colleagues, 1929 (People here are going to die)
From the Library of Congress "Revelations of the Russian Archives" 

What was the Cult of the Personality and who was Leon Trotsky? What happened to ol' Leon?

How would you like to be one of these friends? Here is a letter from one of them.

 But what a nice guy, right?

As this Pravda puff piece from 1930 indicates, the Soviets were not above lying about the success of their collectivization activities.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

The Troubled Origins of the Modern Middle East

The Ottoman Empire in 1914

Today we are going to look at how the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following the First World War set into motion much of the central tensions that we find in the modern Middle East.

Some of the terms that I'll be using in this lecture include:
T.E. Lawrence
The Arab Revolt of 1916-1918
Sykes-Picot Agreement

Balfour Declaration: which reads... His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

Franco-Syrian War of 1920
San Remo Conference
Class A,B, and C League of Nations Mandates
Mandate for Palestine, July 1922
The emergence of modern Turkey and
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Kingdom of Iraq
1936-39 Arab Revolt

Faisal, Lawrence, & Co at the Treaty of Versailles in 1918

Ottoman administrative divisions in the region of Syria

Mandate Zones based on the Sykes-Picot Agreement


Sunday, March 20, 2011

Modern War, Modern Defeat, Modern Peace

The polyglot Austrian-Hungarian Empire

First off, I think it is important that you recall that Britain's King George V, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and Tsar Nicholas II were COUSINS. They were all grandsons of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. They also looked a lot alike.

After the Battle of Jutland, the Germans had few naval options. We'll spend some time looking at the age-old world of commerce raiding and how the Germans came to the game too late and in the wrong way during the First World War. Some old ways just couldn't be converted to modern means!

The BBC put together this excellent Flash map about the fighting during World War I on the Western Front. We're going to look at it today. 

One of the key problems with fighting WWI was that mobility technology hadn't caught up with firepower technology, at least on land. 
From "Since artillery support was not always at hand, German soldiers were provided with their own defensive capability and one form was the Mauser M1918, 13.2mm Anti-Tank Rifle. The large bolt-action rifle proved effective, although its horrendous recoil** was not well received by the troops who had to use it. Since Germany was late to develop tank technology, the Allies never adopted a comparable weapon of their own, but were quick to realize the need to have one as the tank was a certain future threat."

** my aside: you don't say?

Some casualty figures stolen from another website:

Mobilized            Dead         Wounded     Missing/PoW
Russia                12,000,000       1,700,000       4,950,000       2,500,000
Germany               11,000,000       1,773,700       4,216,058       1,152,800
Great Britain          8,904,467         908,371       2,090,212         191,652
France                 8,410,000       1,375,800       4,266,000         537,000
Austria-Hungary        7,800,000       1,200,000       3,620,000       2,200,000
Italy                  5,615,000         650,000         947,000         600,000
US                     4,355,000         126,000         234,300           4,526
Turkey                 2,850,000         325,000         400,000         250,000
Bulgaria               1,200,000          87,500         152,390          27,029
Japan                    800,000             300             907               3
Rumania                  750,000         335,706         120,000          80,000
Serbia                   707,343          45,000         133,148         152,958
Belgium                  267,000          13,716          44,686          34,659
Greece                   230,000           5,000          21,000           1,000
Portugal                 100,000           7,222          13,751          12,318
Montenegro                50,000           3,000          10,000           7,000
Some interesting statistics from the Canadian government on how casualty rates compared between the two world wars. 
In short, Canada on the above table would fit between Italy and Russia with 13.5% of soldiers killed in battle. 47.3% were wounded, which comes second only to France. Six out of every ten Canadians were killed or wounded in the Great War.

World War I memorial in East Angus, Quebec

Over 6.5 of every 10 soldiers from France were either wounded or killed in the First World War. This figure is 5.4 Germany and 5.9 for Austria-Hungary. One-Third of all British soldiers were killed or wounded. Only 8% of American soldiers shared this fate.

Because so many men were mobilized (and if you consider the shadow of civilian mobilization) you might consider how that would change the societies from which the combatants came.

Here is a link to a great film about the War Poets Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen

After the war (a prelude to a coming lecture.)

A great page on the early radio by the University of Virginia

A scene from Charlie Chaplin's Modern Times

Chapter 19 Terms

Chapter 19:
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Vladimir Lenin
Treaty of Versailles
Liberal Capitalism
Authoritarianism (Totalitarianism)
Whites (not the band, Jack, etc.)
Beer Hall Putsch
The Enabling Act
Getúlio Vargas
Salt March
Chiang Kai-shek
White Wolf
Mustafa Kemal "Ataturk"

Your Extra Credit Opportunity

I have been hounded for extra credit opportunities for this class. I seldom offer such opportunities. BUT, I will offer ONE opportunity for extra credit, and it will require some effort on your part. If you cannot make it to this event, that is just bad luck.

Our event will be on Friday evening, April 8, at the New Orleans Museum of Art. They have a traveling exhibit on display that features Zen Calligraphy. Titled "The Sound of One Hand: Paintings and Calligraphy by Zen Master Hakuin"

As part of this exhibit, they have a lecture and demonstration titled "The Creation of Zen Calligraphy" at 6:30 PM on Friday, April 8. My plan is for you to go tour the exhibit at 5:00 PM and attend the lecture at 6:30. I will be there with a sign-in page.

If you attend this lecture, I will boost your first test grade by 10 percent, or an ENTIRE letter grade.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Lecture Question

I said that I would add a question from the first lecture after Test 1, and here it is:

Describe how the tension between modernity and traditionalism fueled discord in Western nations between 1815 and 1900, considering case studies of England, France, Germany, the U.S.A., and Japan.

Monday, March 14, 2011

National Modernity in the East

An early scene from 55 Days at Peking

We'll talk a little bit about this American movie made in 1963 and the memory of the Boxer Rebellion.

But overall, we'll be talking about anti-colonial movements and the formation of modern states in India and China at the turn of the twentieth century.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Chapter 18: Review Terms and Questions

Cultural Modernism
Boxer Rebellion
"spheres of influence" versus the "open door"
Labor Party (Britain) - (what did it signify?)
Porfirio Díaz
Diego Rivera
Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche
Popular culture: lithographs, vaudeville, professional sports, newspapers
Pablo Picasso
Shanghai School
Sun Yat-Sen

How did German unity foster new rivalries in Europe?

What was Bismark's approach to social unrest among the poor?

In what way was the Boxer Rebellion anti-modern? How did this differ dramatically from the political vision of Sun Yat-Sen?

How did the Swadeshi movement differ from earlier revolutionary movements in India?

Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Into Africa

Defense of Rorke's Drift by Alphonse de Neuville

Southern Africa, 1885

Boer Rebels

Some terms that I'll use in Wednesday's lecture:

The Great Trek
Rorke's Drift
Cecil Rhodes
Boer War 1899-1902
Jameson Raid
Kimberly Diamond Fields
Orange Free State
South African Republic (Transvaal Republic)
Witwatersrand Gold Rush

Monday, February 28, 2011

Schedule Clarification

Week 7: What a Wonderful Modern Age We Live In!
Reading: Chapter 17
2/21: Lecture: Messianic Visionaries
2/23: Lecture: instructor out sick

Week 8: Winners and Losers of the 19th Century?
Reading: Chapter 18
2/28: Lecture: The Rise of Science, Technology, and Professionalism
3/2: Lecture: Colonialism and South Africa

Mardi Gras Break

Week 9: Modern Anxiety
3/14: Lecture: 1914: The World on the Eve of the Great War
3/16: TEST 2

Sunday, February 27, 2011

Miracles of Science: Technological and Intellectual Modernity in the late 19th Century

Technological and Intellectual modernity took new and familiar turns in the late 19th Century. In fact, many of the ideas and processes that would govern life in the 20th century world had their root in the second half of the nineteenth century. We will look at these today. 

Scientific Racism
Professionalization of Engineering
Communications revolution
New Steel and its ramifications
Chemistry and modern science


I'll post terms and questions from Chapter 17 soon!

Monday, February 21, 2011

The Messy World of Messianic Visionaries

Today we will look at one particular brand of discontent that flourished in the nineteenth century. Faced with profound and unpleasant social change, societies around the globe produced messianic visionaries who preached the virtues of spiritual rebirth as a means to reversing the trends of modernity. Universally unsuccessful in the 19th Century, we will look at the parallels that we find within our own time.

Chapter 16 terms

Wounded Knee
Abd Al-Wahhab
Dan Fodio
Shaka Zulu
Hong Xiuquan
Taiping Rebellion
Congress of Vienna 1815
Charles Fourier
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Tenskwatawa (The Prophet)
War of the Yucatan
Sepoy Rebellion
Greased Cartridge controversy

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Traditionalism vs. Modernity Part I: The Struggle for the Modern State

Today we are going to look at the troubles that plagued Europe and the West in general during the middle of the 19th Century.

The nations that emerged victorious against Napoleon believed that the Congress of Vienna in 1815 would not only stabilize Europe and prevent another age of warfare, that it would also turn back the clock on some of the fundamental changes that had taken root since the French Revolution.

The Bourbon Kings who emerged after 1815 in France exemplified this reactionary impulse, but as we shall see, it was not only the old nobles who sought a return to the old ways. We'll view this through the rise of France's Second Republic and Second Empire.

At the same time, people across England and Europe saw the post-Napoleonic period as a time for solidifying some of the basic rights gained under the age of "enlightenment." Basic reforms such as freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and universal male suffrage became rallying cries of the people. We will look at this through the failed bid for German nationhood.

The struggle between Modernity and Traditionalism spread to America and Japan as well, and we'll briefly explore these two conflicts in the context of this philosophical rift. 

Lastly, even more radical thinkers emerged out of this turmoil, and we'll spend some time  looking at them.

Some terms that will appear in today's lecture:

Charterist Movement (England)
Charles X of France
Louis Napoleon, a.k.a. Napoleon III
Carl Schurz
Richard Wagner
Meiji Restoration
Karl Marx

Chapter 17: terms and review questions

What motivated Canadians to expand westward and how did these motivations compare and contrast with those that animated Brazilians?

How did the Germans forge a united nation? What problems did they encounter?

How did Africa's national boundaries come into being?

How did the Japanese under the Meiji Restoration attempt to reinvigorate national pride and unity?

What spurred the Japanese to conquer lands in mainland Asia? How was this similar to Britain?

How did the Russian Empire differ economically from Britain and Japan? How was it the same? How did the differenes lead to economic problems?

How did China's efforts and modernization differ from those of Japan? Why?

Social Darwinism
India & "home charges"
Emperor Menelik II
Henry Morton Stanley
New Orientalism (p. 749)
Commodore Perry
Meiji Restoration
Self-Strengthening Movement

Monday, February 14, 2011

Grading your Tests

I've been grading your tests, and it is clear that while a number of you did very well on the matching, some of you have not. I can accept that there can be confusion on matching sections, but remember that these terms all appeared on the blog, greatly narrowing down the terms that you needed to know for the exam.

In the future, here is a tip: If you see a word among the selections that you don't remember from the blog, it is probably not going to be a correct answer. I put these in there for people who don't study, and frankly, for my own entertainment. Now some of you did very well - I think a reflection of reading and studying. Congrats! For the rest of you, we need to know whether or not you missed these because your study methods are insufficient.

But without further ado:

"Raja Miripuri" is actually my neighbor, Shawn Miripuri, who while Indian and a fantastic neighbor, has not to my knowledge ever been a Mughal leader. "King" Juan Valdèz might ring a bell if you remember these following commercials:

I just plain made up "Giuseppe the Navigator" because it seemed like fun, as well as "The Great Restoration" and the "Treaty of Elba." I don't think anybody used these these terms in a place where I thought someone might think it appropriate, which really confused me.

And "pokkelijder" means something along the lines of "pox sufferer" in Dutch, which in the greater scheme of Dutch profanity is apparently a terrible insult.  "Lufka Humma" is the Natchez princess immortalized in the Grandissimes by Louisiana writer George Washington Cable.

Pepe Lopez is a brand of tequila, but since we know none of you are old enough to drink, that might have confused you.  Emiliano Zapata might have been easy to confuse for Father Hidalgo, but, of course, he wasn't one of your terms. Moreover, Zapata was a full century later than Hidalgo in Mexico's dramatic revolutionary history.

Monday, February 7, 2011

Haiti as a Metaphor

Today we will explore why Haiti serves as a good metaphor for all of the themes that we have explored in this course up until this point.

Wednesday, February 2, 2011

The Painful Arrival of Political Modernity

So far in this class, we have explored many different ways in which the world became more "modern" after 1500, particularly with regard to economics, technology, and ideas. Today we are going to look at some of the earthshaking political changes that took place beginning at the end of the eighteenth century and how they redefined the relationship between governments and the governed.

We've already spent enough time considering North America, and you've had plenty of time in your 18+ years to learn about the American Revolution. Instead, today we will cast our gaze toward the French Revolution and its enormous global ramifications.

This revolution undermined absolutist monarchies, but in the end did not necessarily replace them with governments that fostered the revolutionary ideals of liberty, fraternity, and equality.

Some of the issues we will confront:

What the French Revolution meant to the rest of the western world, and why it was so troubling for those in charge.
The conditions that allowed a man like Napoleon Bonaparte to emerge as Emperor of France
The ways in which Bonaparte did and did not carry on the ideals of the Revolution.
Why the Age of Napoleon was a little like throwing a rock into a pond in terms of global change.
How Enlightenment-era ideas could put into motion a series of events resulting in less-than-enlightened outcomes.

A few terms that we'll confront today (some are also in your book): Jacobin, Grande Armée, Decemberists, Muhammad Ali Pasha, Leo Tolstoy, "Patriotic War of 1812," Muhammad Ali Pasha, Mamluks.

Culture and images:

Napoleon in Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha

And where would we be without a map? Charles Joseph Minard's graphic map of Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

In addition to Tolstoy, which I'll talk about in the lecture, the Napoleonic Era inspired some of the West's most iconic music and visual art. Familiar to you should be Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture:

Or this great Boccherini piece (used in Master and Commander) composed on the eve of Napoleon's invasion of Spain. Boccherini had fled Napoleon's France for Spain.

And, of course, Goya's 3rd of May

Chapter 15 terms

In your textbook:

For Chapter 15, you should be able to explain the differences in the way the age of revolution played out in these following places:

Spanish South America
Haiti (San Domingue)
British North America (the USA)
The Ottoman Empire

How did the elimination of the international slave trade affect Africa?

How did Opium transform China's relationship with the West, and in what way did this parallel India's experience? How was India's and China's relationship with the West differ?

You should know the basic series of events having to do with the French Revolution.

Why was Free Trade so good for Britain and not so wonderful for a lot of other places?

Some terms:

Estates General
National Assembly
The Terror
Congress of Vienna
Pedro I of Brazil
Hidalgo and Morelos
palm oil
Muhammad Ali
Orientalism (and its rise and fall in India)

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Your Lecture Questions

I've entered the grades for the first four of your lecture questions into Blackboard. If you have a "2" for your grade, then I gave you full credit. If you got less than a "2," then I will expect more out of future questions from you. My grading on these was generous in acknowledgment of your learning curve. It will become less generous as we get further into class.

Some things to consider when writing your questions:

  • I'm giving you plenty of time. Don't just produce something slipshod so as to exit the classroom as quickly as possible.
  • If it is unintelligible (I can't understand what you are trying to say) I cannot give you credit.  See bullet point #1.
  • The question itself should not contain errors of fact. 
  • You should use proper grammar and, ideally, spelling in your question.
  • Your question should not be virtually identical to the one turned in by the person sitting next to you.
  • No hypothetical questions, like: "What do you think would happen if the French had ESP?" Not even if they aren't this silly. Stick to the material.

Think about the big picture. Just don't scissor some small fun fact out of the lecture and expect to receive credit. In the future, a question like this will not receive credit:
"What did Spain get back from England after the Seven Years' War?"
"Where did the free press first emerge?"

Why not? Because these aren't analytical questions. Your lecture question requires you to think about the greater meanings in the material. Here are a few examples of actual student questions that I received over the last four classes. Not all of them are perfectly correct with regard to grammar, and all are not completely clear in their meaning - I would edit these before I used them on a test for both content and clarity. Yet, these questions come close to the spirit of the assignment:

"What was Nathaniel Bacon's issue with Gov. Berkeley? How did Bacon's rebellion contribute to the expansion of slavery in North America?" (Actually, the second half of this question is sufficiently analytical. On a test I would expect some elaboration of how the conflict came to be, including a description of the background and aspirations of the rebels, and the reasoning behind the move toward African slavery in the Chesapeake.)

"In what ways did mercantilism change the dynamic of European countries and ultimately aid in the starting of the Seven Years' War?" (I would edit this, but it contains analysis as it invites the respondent to draw connections between mercantilism, colonialism, and global conflict.)

"How did the commodification of the world in the end of the 15th Century influence the trade, economic, and social standings in Europe, Asia, and Africa." (This actually has grammatical errors that cloud the question's meaning. But the underlying question is an important one. If we rephrase it, we come closer to an invitation to a discussion on global commodity. We could even narrow it down. How about this: "How did the commodification of human beings alter the social standing of the poorer classes in Europe and Africa (not so much Asia) at the end of the 15th Century?")

"What did Carl Linneaeus's 'Great Chain of Being' teach? What effect did it have one Europe's worldview and foreign relations?" (Again, this question beckons us to think deeply about the connections between scientific classification, emerging ideas of race, and how these ideas translate into governmental policy in Europe. I might word it differently, but this question shows me that the student is making connections in the material.)

Monday, January 31, 2011

Global War Cometh

Colonialism begat Mercantilism. 

Mercantilism begat Colonial Economies

Competing Colonialism begat Global War

The Seven Year's War on 3 Continents
Prussia and England are "allies"

Prussia: fighting France, Austria, Poland on land in Europe
England: fighting Spain and France - mostly at sea and around world

The Death of Wolfe by Benjamin West
 Just 32 years of age, the courageous General John Wolfe died during his signal victory at Quebec City in 1759. His opposite, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm also died as a result of the battle.

The balance of power shift in the Americas

Blamed for losing the British outpost at Minorca to the British, Admiral John Byng was shot by a firing squad following a courts-martial accusing him of not acting to his utmost.  The satirist Voltaire commented on the execution of Byng in Candide, where the title character goes to Portsmouth to witness the execution and quips in this country, it is wise to kill an admiral from time to time to encourage the others."

A British squadron took Havana in 1762, and gave it back to Spain in exchange for Minorca and Florida after the 1763 Treaty of Paris.

About the same time, another British squadron took Manila in the Philippines from the Spanish. It, too, went back to Spain after the treaty, but not after Britain received an enormous ransom and further trade concessions from Spain.

At the end of the day, was this a war of ideas or money and power? Why?

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Read All About It!

If we followed the money in Chapter 13, then we are following the ideas in Chapter 14.

Broadly considered, could you answer how trade and prosperity helped bring about new ideas around the globe?

An early news pamphlet or "newsbook," the forerunner of the newspaper, from 1660

William Hogarth's South Sea Scheme, 1721

Pamphlets, newspapers, and later, political images were important developments in spreading ideas in Europe and elsewhere. How did this revolution in inexpensive communication reorder traditional patterns of influence?

Here is another interesting Hogarth work - a painting from which an engraving would be made. How had representational art changed? How did it reflect the way society had changed in the 150 years before this painting appeared?

An English Coffeehouse of the 18th Century

The voyages of Captain James Cook

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)

Japan, as you have read, did everything in its power to maintain trade with the West without having to put up with all of those pesky intellectual trends washing ashore. Their solution was Dejima or Deshima Island, depicted below:

 The Dutch VOC became the sole traders in Japan in

A French account of Japan in German from 1663

Lastly, some specifics that you should have gotten out of the book:

What do the different maps in chapter 14 tell us about the worldviews of different societies vis a vis the rest of the world?

Why didn't the Chinese or Mugal worlds find much worthwhile in European ideas?

How and in what context did academic plagiarism become a problem in China?

What new conceptions of "race" emerged with both the population of the Americas and in the context of new Linnaean approaches to taxonomy?

Some terms from Chapter 14:
Taj Mahal
No and Kabuki
Galileo and Bacon
Coffeehouse culture
Asante, Oyo, Benin
Captain Cook and Carl Linnaeus 
Great Chain of Being

Monday, January 24, 2011

The Many Diffusions of the Old World into the New

Today we are going to look at the many manifestations of European contact with North America - both for the way that the Europeans changed the Americas and the other way around.

Some of the institutions we will cover today include:

Indentured servitude
The emergence of North American Slavery
The notion of freedom and individual liberty versus class hierarchy
The spread of ideas
Commodity and the changing of the North American Indians

An ad offering indentured servants

An ad offering a reward for runaway indentured servants.

A really cool link to a database of indentured servants from the Virtual Jamestown Project.

Bacon's Castle in Virginia

A list of those executed in the wake of Bacon's Rebellion.

A hatchet head, the world's most useful survival tool, imported by 100,000 to North America.